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双语阅读,2018年6月英语六级阅读真题

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双语阅读,2018年6月英语六级阅读真题

  2018年上半年全国大学英语四六级考试于6月16日进行,新浪教育24小时全程关注,为你带来第一手四六级考试资讯。以下为英语六级阅读真题:

很多经历青春期的少男少女都曾感到莫名的情绪在体内躁动,甚至有些人会一时冲动而做出离经叛道的事。这是因为青少年是身体趋于成熟,而大脑发育没有跟上的一个时期。学者表示,对于青少年面临的独特健康挑战,我们的了解还远远不够,能做的也还有很多。

Almost a quarter of teenagers in the US now use <font color=red size=+1>Twitter</font>, a dramatic jump on last year that underlines how internet companies are battling to win fickle young users.

It's six o'clock in the morning,pitch(a strong level of feeling about something or a high level of an activity or a quality.)black outside. My 14-year-old son is fast asleep in his bed, sleeping thereckless(not caring or worring about the possible bad or dangerous results of your actions.), deep sleep of a teenager. Iflip(to move a switch so  that a machine or piece of electrical equipment starts or stops.)on the light and physically shake the poor boy awake,because I know that, like ripping off aBand-Aid(a piece of thin material that is stuck to the skin to cover cuts and other small wounds.), it's better to get it over with quickly.

  Part Ⅲ Reading Comprehension (40 minutes)

金沙官网 1

SOURCE: FT.COM
TIME: 2013.05.21
URL: www.ft.coms/....html

I have a friend who yells "Fire!" just to rouse her sleeping teen. And another who got sofed up(If you are fed up, you are unhappy, board , ot tired of something, especially something that you have been experiencing for a long time.)that she had todump(If you dump something somewhere, you put it or unload it there quickly and carelessly.)cold water on her son's head just to get him out of bed. Sound brutal ... but perhaps familiar?

  Section A

Whatever their foibles — door-slamming, grunting, excessive Snapchatting — teenagers are right about one thing: nobody understands them. This umbra of non-comprehension takes in not just parents, but doctors, psychologists, neuroscientists, social scientists, legal experts and educators.


Every morning I ask myself, "How can I — knowing what I know and doing what I do for a living — be doing this to my own son?" You see, I'm a sleep researcher.

  Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks。 You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage。 Read the passage through carefully before making your choices。 Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter。 Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre。 You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once。

不管他们有什么怪癖(摔门、不好好说话、把过多的时间花在Snapchat上),少男少女们有一点是正确的:没有人理解他们。不理解他们的不只是父母,还有医生、心理学家、神经学家、社会学家、法律专家和教育者。

<font color=NAVY size=+2>THINGS LIST:</font>

So I know far too much about sleep and the consequences of sleep loss. I know that I'm depriving my son of the sleep he desperately needs as a rapidly growing teenager. I also know that by waking him up hours before his natural biological clock tells him he's ready, I'm literallyrobbing(to steal money or property from a person, bank etc.)him of his dreams — the type of sleep most associated with learning, memory consolidation and emotional processing.

  Did Sarah Josepha Hale write “Mary’s Little Lamb,” the eternal nursery rhyme (儿歌) about girl named Mary with a stubborn lamb? This is still disputed, but it’s clear that the woman 26 for writing it was one of America’s most fascinating 27 。 In honor of the poem publication on May 24,1830, here’s more about the 28 author’s life。

There is surprisingly scant scientific research about the hazy period between childhood and adulthood in which adolescents exist. As an editorial in the journal Nature pointed out this month: “A modern healthcare system without a focus on the unique challenges of paediatrics or geriatrics would be unthinkable, yet there is no similar effort on behalf of adolescents.”

  1. Almost 25% teenagers in the US now use <font color=red size=+1>Twitter</font>, which is a dramatic jump on last year.
  2. Internet companies are battling to win fickle young users, including adults and teens.
  3. The growth of the microblogging site is a sign that teens are diversifying their social media habits to include a range of websites rather than just decamping from <font color=blue size=+1>Facebook</font>, as they use different sites for different groups of friends or family.
  4. 24% of online teens now use <font color=red size=+1>Twitter</font>, up from 16% in 2011, and even higher than the 16% of online adults who use the site.
  5. <font color=blue size=+1>Facebook</font> remains the dominant social network for teens, with 94% of online teens saying they maintain a profile there, while 81% say it is the social media site they use most often.
  6. 7% of online teens say they use <font color=red size=+1>Twitter</font>most often
  7. 3% say Instagram and 1% say Tumblr.

But it's not just my kid that's being deprived of sleep. Sleep deprivation among American teenagers is anepidemic(a large number of cases of a disease that happen at the same time.). Only about one in 10 gets the eight to 10 hours of sleep per nightrecommended(to advise someone to do something, especially because you have special knowledge of a situation or subject.)by sleep scientists andpediatricians(a doctor who studies and treats the diseases of children.). Now, if you're thinking to yourself, "Phew, we're doing good, my kid's getting eight hours," remember, eight hours is the minimum recommendation. You're barely passing.Eight hours is kind of like getting a C on your report card.

  Hale wasn’t just a writer, she was also a 29 social advocate, and she was particularly 30 with an ideal New England, which she associated with abundant Thanksgiving meals that she claimed had “a deep moral influence,” she began a nationwide 31 to have a national holiday declared that would bring families together while celebrating the 32 festivals。 In 1863, after 17 years of advocacy including letters to five presidents, Hale got it。 President Abraham Lincoln during the Civil War, issued a __33__ setting aside the last Thursday in November for the holiday。

有关青少年所处的介于童年和成年之间这段模糊时期的科学研究出奇地匮乏。正如《自然》(Nature)杂志不久前的一篇社评指出的那样:“难以想象一个现代医疗体系会不关注儿童或老年人所带来的独特挑战,但青少年没有得到类似的关注。”


There are many factors contributing to this epidemic, but a major factor preventing teens from getting the sleep they need is actually a matter of public policy. Not hormones, social lives or Snap chat. Across the country, many schools are starting around 7:30am or earlier, despite the fact that major medical organizations recommend that middle and high school start no earlier than 8:30am. These early start policies have a direct effect on how much — or really how little sleep American teenagers are getting.They're alsopitting(if two opposing things or people are pitted against one another, they are in conflict.)teenagers and their parents in afundamentally(you use fundamentally for emphasis when you are stating an opinion, or when you are making an important or general statemeng about something.)unwinnable fight against their own bodies. Around the time ofpuberty(the stage of physical development during which you change from a child to an adult and are abole to have children.), teenagers experience a delay in their biological clock, which determines when we feel most awake and when we feel most sleepy. This is driven in part by a shift in the release of the hormonemelatonin(a hormone that is sometimes used as a drug to help you sleep.). Teenagers' bodies wait to start releasing melatonin until around 11pm, which is two hours later than what we see in adults or younger children. This means that waking a teenager up at 6am is the biologicalequivalent(having the same value, purpose, job etc as a person or thing of a different kind.)of waking an adult up at 4am. On the unfortunate days when I have to wake up at 4am, I'm azombie(someone who moves very slowly and does not seem to be thinking about what they are doing, especially because they are very tired.). Functionally useless. I can't think straight, I'mirritable(getting annoyed quickly or easily.), and I probably shouldn't be driving a car. But this is how many American teenagers feel every single school day. In fact, many of the, shall we say, unpleasant characteristics that wechalk up(to earn or achieve:to accumulate)to being a teenager —moodiness(often changing quickly from being in a good temper to being in a bad temper.), irritability, laziness, depression — could be a product ofchronic(a chronic problem is one that continues for a long time and cannot easily be solved.)sleepdeprivation(the lack of something that  you need in order to be healthy, comfortable, or happy.). For many teens battling chronic sleep loss, their go-to strategy to compensate is consuming large quantities of caffeine in the form ofventi frappuccinos,or energy drinks and shots. Soessentially(used when stating the most basic facts about something.), we've got an entire population of tired butwired(feeling very active and excited, especially because you have drunk a lot of coffee or taken a drug.)youth.

  The true authorship of “Mary’s Little Lamb” is disputed。 According to New England Historical Society, Hale wrote only one part of the poem, but claimed authorship。 Regardless of the author, it seems that the poem was __34__by a real event。 When young Mary Sawyer was followed to school by a lamb in 1816, it caused some problems。 A bystander named John Roulstone wrote a poem about the event, then, at some point, Hale herself seems to have helped write it。 However, if a 1916 piece by her great-niece is to be trusted, Hale claimed for the __35__of her life that “Some other people pretended that someone else wrote the poem”。

The term adolescence stems from the Latin adolescere, meaning “to grow up” but, in many other contexts, it eludes easy definition. The World Health Organization puts adolescence between the ages of 10 and 19, with other categories jostling within that complex territory. The UN defines a youth as aged 15-24, a genre overlapping with “child” (under 18) and the generic “young people” (10-24).

<font color=NAVY size=+2>ANALYSIS WAYS:</font>

Advocates of sleep-friendly start times know thatadolescence(the time, usually between the age of 12 and 18, when a young person is developing into an  adult.)is a period of dramatic brain development,particularly in the parts of the brain that areresponsible( if someone is responsible for an accident , mistake, crime etc, it is their fault or they blamed.)for those higher order thinking processes,including reasoning, problem-solving and good judgment. In other words, the very type of brain activity that's responsible forreining(to start to control a situation more strictly.)in thoseimpulsive(someone who is impulsive does things without considering the possible dangers or problems first.)and often risky behaviors that are socharacteristic(very typical of a particular thing or of someone's character.)of adolescence and that are so terrifying to us parents of teenagers. They know that like the rest of us, when teenagers don't get the sleep they need, their brains, their bodies and behaviors suffer with both immediate and lasting effects. They can't concentrate, their attentionplummets(to suddenly and quickly decrease in value or amount.)and many will even show behavioral signs thatmimic(to copy the way someone speaks or behaves, especially in order to make people laugh.)ADHD(attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.).

  A) campaign I) proclamation

“青少年”这个词来源于拉丁语adolescere,意思是“成长”,但在很多其他语境下,它不容易定义。世界卫生组织(WHO)把青少年定义为10至19岁,但涵盖这个复杂年龄区间的还有其他分类。联合国(UN)把青年定义为15岁至24岁,这与儿童(18岁以下)以及泛指的“年轻人”(10至24岁)重叠。

  1. Internet companies are battling to win fickle young users, including adults and teens.
  2. The growth of the microblogging site is a sign that teens are diversifying their social media habits to include a range of websites rather than just decamping from <font color=blue size=+1>Facebook</font>, as they use different sites for different groups of friends or family.
  3. Adults were the first to colonise <font color=red size=+1>Twitter</font>. However, teens are now migrating to <font color=red size=+1>Twitter</font>in growing numbers, often as a supplement to their <font color=blue size=+1>Facebook</font> use.
  4. Despite its popularity, maintaining a <font color=blue size=+1>Facebook</font> account is sometimes seen by teens as an obligation or even a burden, while newer services are more appealing, in part because they are “less social” or because parents are less likely to be there.
    “Yeah, that’s why we go on <font color=red size=+1>Twitter</font> and Instagram,” said one 19-year old survey respondent. “My mom doesn’t have that.”
  5. Some set up several account to interact with different groups of friends or family, while many have developed sophisticated ways to post information, such as inside jokes or arcane cultural references, so that only certain friends will understand the full and real meaning.
  6. Advertisers put a huge amount of effort into marketing to teens, and are especially interested in exploiting social networks because this group is so influenced by their peers.

But the consequences of teen sleep loss go well beyond the classroom, sadlycontributing(to help to cause something to happen.)to many of the mental health problems that skyrocket during adolescence, includingsubstance use, depression and suicide. In our work with teens from LAUnified (created from more than on part, group)School District, we found that teens with sleep problems were 55 percent more likely to have used alcohol in the past month. In another study with over 30,000 high school students, they found that for each hour of lost sleep, there was a 38 percent increase in feeling sad or hopeless, and a 58 percent increase in teen suicide attempts. And if that's not enough,teens whoskip out(to leave a place quickly in a secret and improper way.)on sleep are at increased risk for a host of physical health problems thatplague(to cause pain, suffering, or trouble to someone, especially for a long period of time.)our country, including obesity, heart disease anddiabetes(a serious disease in which there is too much sugar in your blood.).Then there's the risk of putting a sleep-deprived teen, with a newlyminted(if you describe something as newly minted or freshly minted, you mean that it is very new, and that it has only just been produced or completed.)driver's license, behind the wheel. Studies have shown that getting five hours or less of sleep per night is the equivalent of driving with a blood alcohol content above the legal limit.

  B) career J) rectified

It should not surprise us, then, that there is great variation the world over — and even within countries — in the ages at which the young are entrusted with making adult decisions. Laurence Steinberg, a psychology professor, writes: “A society that tries 12-year-olds who commit serious crimes as adults because they’re mature enough to ‘know better’ but prohibits 20-year-olds from buying alcohol because they are too immature to handle it, is deeply confused about how to treat people in this age range.”

<font color='red' size='+1'><b>★ Tips:Your best friend liking something when you’re 13 is much more influential than your best friend liking something when you’re 35.</b></font>

Advocates of sleep-friendly start times, and researchers in this area, have produced tremendous sciences howing the tremendous benefits of later start times. The findings areunequivocal(completely clear and without any possibility of doubt.), and as a sleep scientist, I rarely get to speak with that kind of certainty. Teens from districts with later start times get more sleep. To thenaysayers(a person who says something will not work or is not possible:a person who denies, refuses, or opposes something.)who may think that if schools start later, teens will just stay up later, the truth is, their bedtimes stay the same, but their wake-up times get extended, resulting in more sleep.They're more likely to show up for school; school absences dropped by 25 percent in one district. And they're less likely to drop out. Not surprisingly, they do better academically.

  C) characters K) reputed

因此,我们对此就不应感到意外了:全世界(甚至各国内部)对于年轻人有能力做出成人决定的最低年龄界定存在巨大差异。心理学教授劳伦斯?斯坦伯格(Laurence Steinberg)写道:“我们把一位犯下严重罪行的12岁年轻人当作成年人来审讯,因为他们已足够成熟,应该‘知道什么事情不能做’了;与此同时,我们禁止20岁的人买酒,因为他们还不够成熟,无法驾驭酒精:这样一个社会对于如何对待这个年龄区间的人是深感困惑的。”

So this has realimplications(a possible future effect or result of an action,event, decision etc.)金沙官网,for reducing the achievement gap. Standardized test scores in math and reading go up by two to three percentage points. That's as powerful as reducing class sizes by one-third fewer students, or replacing a so-so teacher in the classroom with a truly outstanding one. Their mental and physical health improves, and even their families are happier. I mean, who wouldn't enjoy a little more pleasantness from our teens, and a little lesscrankiness(bad-tempered.)? Even their communities are safer because car crash rates go down — a 70 percent reduction in one district.

  D) features L) rest

Biology provides an obvious pointer. Adolescence is thought to begin with the onset of puberty (sexual development), but patterns of puberty vary around the world — and within countries — over time. One study shows that in the mid-19th century, girls in developed countries had their first period at about 15 or 16 years old. By 2000, this had dropped to below 13, a trend that has been attributed to better nutrition and healthcare. Puberty also occurs earlier in boys. Childhood obesity is thought to be an accelerating factor.

Given these tremendous benefits, you might think, well, this is ano-brainer(a decision that is easy, and that you do not need to think about, used when you want to emphasize that it is really very easy.), right? So why have we as a society failed toheed(to pay attention to someone's advice or warning.)this call? Often the argument against later start times goes something like this:"Why should we delay start times for teenagers? We need to toughen them up so they're ready for the real world!" But that's like saying to the parent of a two-year-old, "Don't let Johnny nap, or he won't be ready for kindergarten."

  E) fierce M) supposed

生物学提供了明显的指标。通常认为,青春期(性发育期)开始时,儿童就成为了青少年,但发育的规律在全球(以及国家内部)各有不同。一项研究显示,19世纪中叶,发达国家女孩的初次月经年龄大约为15或16岁。到2000年,这个年龄降至13岁以下,这一趋势要归因于营养与医疗的改善。男孩的青春期也提前出现。据信,儿童肥胖是导致这种情况的一个因素。

Delaying start times also presents manylogistical(the practical arrangements that are needed in order to make a plan that involves a lot of people and equipment successful.)challenges. Not just for students and their families, but for communities as a whole. Updating bus routes, increased transportation costs, impact on sports, care before or after school. These are the same concerns that come up in district after district, time and again around the country as school start times are debated. And they're legitimate concerns, but these are problems we have to work through. They are notvalid(a reason, argument etc that is based on what is reasonable or sensible)excuses for failing to do the right thing for our children, which is to start middle and high schools no earlier than 8:30am. And in districts around the country, big and small, who have made this change, they found that these fears are often unfounded and far outweighed by the tremendous benefits for student health and performance, and our collective public safety.

  F) inspired N) traditional

Flowering bodies, however, are governed by childish brains. Prof Steinberg points out that the young brain continues maturing into the mid-20s. Neurodevelopmental changes depend partly on hormones and can drive pleasure-seeking, risky and impulsive behaviour. Accordingly, Professor Steinberg extends adolescence’s dominion to between the ages of 10 and 25.

So tomorrow morning, when coincidentally we get to set our clocks back by an hour and you get that delicious extra hour of sleep, and the day seems a little longer, and a little more full of hope, think about the tremendous power of sleep. And think about what a gift it would be for our children to be able to wake up naturally, inharmony(be in harmony with something--to agree with another idea, feeling etc, or look good with other things.)with their own biology.

  G) latter O) versatile

然而,正在成熟的身体由仍处于孩童阶段的大脑控制着。斯坦伯格教授指出,大脑要到25岁左右才发育成熟。神经发育变化在一定程度上取决于激素,这些变化还可能激发寻求快感、冒险和冲动的行为。因此,斯坦伯格教授将青少年的年龄区间延长为10岁至25岁。

Thank you, and pleasant dreams.

  H) obsessed

By then, of course, young people are already notching up the social milestones of adulthood: driving, voting, working, living independently, enlisting in the military, drinking, buying guns, marrying and becoming parents. Society will have long sexualised them. And for the digitally connected, the mis-steps of youth are today captured, shared and archived in perpetuity. That collision of adolescent brains with adult norms might underlie some of the darker statistics relating to young people. The leading causes of adolescent death are, respectively, road accidents, HIV and suicide.

  Section B

当然,到那时,年轻人已经在完成标志着长大成人的一件件大事:驾车、投票、工作、独立生活、参军、饮酒、购买枪支、结婚和生子。社会应该也早已让他们具备了性别意识。对于成长于数字互联时代的人们而言,年少时走错的路如今会被记录、分享并永远储存下来。青少年的大脑与成年人的规范之间的冲突,可能从根本上导致了一些与年轻人相关的较沉重的统计数据。青少年死亡的主要原因分别是交通事故、艾滋病和自杀。

  Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it。 Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs。 Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived。 You may choose a paragraph more than once。 Each paragraph is marked with a letter。 Answer the question by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2。

Adolescent health also deserves specific contemplation because the habits of youth can become the millstones of adulthood: teens who smoke cannabis or nicotine, or who abuse alcohol, often become hooked for life. Mental health issues tend to surface early in adulthood but afflicted adolescents are mostly diagnosed on the basis of adult criteria and treated with drugs intended for older patients. When it comes to understanding adolescents, it is adults who need to grow up.

  Peer Pressure Has a Positive Side

青少年健康值得特别深思,还因为年少时的习惯可能会成为成年后的负担:抽大麻、抽烟或酗酒的青少年通常会终身成瘾。心理健康问题往往很早就有迹象,但青少年患者大多是根据成人标准接受诊断的,治疗所使用的药物也是原本针对年纪较大患者的。在了解青少年方面,需要成长的是成年人。

  A。 Parents of teenagers often view their children‘s friends with something like suspicion。 They worry that the adolescent peer group has the power to push its members into behavior that is foolish and even dangerous。 Such wariness is well founded: statistics show, for example, that a teenage driver with a same-age passenger in the car is at higher risk of a fatal crash than an adolescent driving alone or with an adult。

  B。 In a 2005 study, psychologist Laurence Steinberg of Temple University and his co-author, psychologist Margo Gardner, then at Temple, divided 306 people into three age groups: young adolescents, with a mean age of 14; older adolescents, with a mean age of 19; and adults, aged 24 and older。 Subjects played a computerized driving game in which the player must avoid crashing into a wall that materializes, without warning, on the roadway。 Steinberg and Gardner randomly assigned some participants to play alone or with two same-age peers looking on。

  C。 Older adolescents scored about 50 percent higher on an index of risky driving when their peers were in the room—and the driving of early adolescents was fully twice as reckless when other young teens were around。 In contrast, adults behaved in similar ways regardless of whether they were on their own or observed by others。 “The presence of peers makes adolescents and youth, but not adults, more likely to take risks,” Steinberg and Gardner concluded。

  D。 Yet in the years following the publication of this study, Steinberg began to believe that this interpretation did not capture the whole picture。 As he and other researchers examined the question of why teens were more apt to take risks in the company of other teenagers, they came to suspect that a crowd‘s influence need not always be negative。 Now some experts are proposing that we should take advantage of the teen brain’s keen sensitivity to the presence of friends and leverage it to improve education。

  E。 In a 2011 study, Steinberg and his colleagues turned to functional MRI (磁共振) to investigate how the presence of peers affects the activity in the adolescent brain。 They scanned the brains of 40 teens and adults who were playing a virtual driving game designed to test whether players would brake at a yellow light or speed on through the crossroad。

  F。 The brains of teenagers, but not adults, showed greater activity in two regions associated with rewards when they were being observed by same-age peers than when alone。 In other words, rewards are more intense for teens when they are with peers, which motivates them to pursue higher-risk experiences that might bring a big payoff (such as the thrill of just making the light before it turns red)。 But Steinberg suspected this tendency could also have its advantages。 In his latest experiment, published online in August, Steinberg and his colleagues used a computerized version of a card game called the Iowa Gambling Task to investigate how the presence of peers affects the way young people gather and apply information。

  G。 The results: Teens who played the Iowa Gambling Task under the eyes of fellow adolescents engaged in more exploratory behavior, learned faster from both positive and negative outcomes, and achieved better performance on the task than those who played in solitude。 “What our study suggests is that teenagers learn more quickly and more effectively when their peers are present than when they‘re on their own,” Steinberg says。 And this finding could have important implications for how we think about educating adolescents。

  H。 Matthew D。 Lieberman, a social cognitive neuroscientist at the University of California, Los Angeles, and author of the 2013 book Social: Why Our Brains Are Wired to Connect, suspects that the human brain is especially adept at learning socially salient information。 He points to a classic 2004 study in which psychologists at Dartmouth College and Harvard University used functional MRI to track brain activity in 17 young men as they listened to descriptions of people while concentrating on either socially relevant cues (for example, trying to form an impression of a person based on the description) or more socially neutral information (such as noting the order of details in the description)。 The descriptions were the same in each condition, but people could better remember these statements when given a social motivation。

  I。 The study also found that when subjects thought about and later recalled descriptions in terms of their informational content, regions associated with factual memory, such as the medial temporal lobe, became active。 But thinking about or remembering descriptions in terms of their social meaning activated the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex—part of the brain‘s social network—even as traditional memory regions registered low levels of activity。 More recently, as he reported in a 2012 review, Lieberman has discovered that this region may be part of a distinct network involved in socially motivated learning and memory。 Such findings, he says, suggest that “this network can be called on to process and store the kind of information taught in school—potentially giving students access to a range of untapped mental powers。”

  J。 If humans are generally geared to recall details about one another, this pattern is probably even more powerful among teenagers who are hyperattentive to social minutiae: who is in, who is out, who likes whom, who is mad at whom。 Their penchant for social drama is not—or not only—a way of distracting themselves from their schoolwork or of driving adults crazy。 It is actually a neurological(神经的) sensitivity, initiated by hormonal changes。 Evolutionarily speaking, people in this age group are at a stage in which they can prepare to find a mate and start their own family while separating from parents and striking out on their own。 To do this successfully, their brain prompts them to think and even obsess about others。

  K。 Yet our schools focus primarily on students as individual entities。 What would happen if educators instead took advantage of the fact that teens are powerfully compelled to think in social terms? In Social, Lieberman lays out a number of ways to do so。 History and English could be presented through the lens of the psychological drives of the people involved。 One could therefore present Napoleon in terms of his desire to impress or Churchill in terms of his lonely melancholy。 Less inherently interpersonal subjects, such as math, could acquire a social aspect through team problem solving and peer tutoring。 Research shows that when we absorb information in order to teach it to someone else, we learn it more accurately and deeply, perhaps in part because we are engaging our social cognition。

  L。 And although anxious parents may not welcome the notion, educators could turn adolescent recklessness to academic ends。 “Risk taking in an educational context is a vital skill that enables progress and creativity,” wrote Sarah-Jayne Blakemore, a cognitive neuroscientist at University College London, in a review published last year。 Yet, she noted, many young people are especially risk averse at school—afraid that one low test score or mediocre grade could cost them a spot at a selective university。 We should assure such students that risk, and even peer pressure, can be a good thing—as long as it happens in the classroom and not the car。

  36。 It is thought probable that the human brain is particularly good at picking-up socially important information。

  37。 It can be concluded from experiment that the presence of peers increases risk-taking by adolescents and youth。

  38。 Students should be told that risk XXX classroom can be something positive。

  39。 The XXX a mate and getting married accounts for adolescents’ greater attention to social interactions。

  40。 According to Steinberg, the presence of peers increases the speed and effectiveness of teenagers’ leaning。

  41。 Teenagers’ parents are often concerned XXX negative peer influence。

  42。 Activating the XXX network involved in socially motivated learning and memory may XXX tap XXX mental powers。

  43。 The presence of peer intensifies the feeling of rewards in teens’ brains。

  44。 When we absorb information for the purpose of imparting it to ethers, we do so with greater secretary and depth。

  45。 Some experts are suggesting that we turn peer influence to good use in education。

  Section C

  Direction: There are 2 passages in this section。 Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statement。 For each of them there are four choice and our marked A),B),C) and D)。You should decide on the best choice and nark the corresponding letter on Answer sheet2 with a single line through the centre。

  Passage One

  Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage。

  The Ebro Delta, in Spain, famous as a battleground during the Spanish Civil War, is now the setting for a different contest, one that is pitting rice farmers against two enemies: the rice-eating giant apple snail, and rising sea levels。 What happens here will have a bearing on the future of European rice production and the overall health of southern European wetlands。

  Located on the Mediterranean just two hours south of Barcelona, the Ebro Delta produces 120 million kilograms of rice a year, making it one of the continent’s most important rice-growing areas。 As the sea creeps into these freshwater marshes, however, rising salinity (盐分) is hampering rice production。 At the same time, this sea-water also kills off the greedy giant apple snail, an introduced pest that feeds on young rice plants。 The most promising strategy has become to harness one foe against the other。

  The battle is currently being waged on land, in greenhouses at the University of Barcelona。 Scientists working under the banner “Project Neurice” are seeking varieties of rice that can withstand the increasing salinity without losing the absorbency that makes European rice ideal for traditional Spanish and Italian dishes。

  “The project has two sides,” says Xavier Serrat, Neurice project manager and researcher at the University of Barcelona。 “The short-term fight against the snail, and a mid- to long-term fight against climate change。 But the snail has given the project greater urgency。”

  Originally from South America, the snails were accidentally introduced into the Ebro Delta by Global Aquatic Tecnologies, a company that raised the snails for fresh-water aquariums (水族馆), but failed to prevent their escape。 For now, the giant apple snail’s foothold in Europe is limited to the Ebro Delta。 But the snail continues its march to new territory, says Serrat。 “The question is not if it will reach other rice-growing areas of Europe, but when。”

  Over the next year and a half investigators will test the various strains of saline-tolerant rice they’ve concocted。 In 2018, farmers will plant the varieties with the most promise in the Ebro Delta and Europe’s other two main rice-growing regions—along the Po in Italy, and France’s Rhône。 A season in the field will help determine which, if any, of the varieties are ready for commercialization。

  As an EU-funded effort, the search for salt-tolerant varieties of rice is taking place in all three countries。 Each team is crossbreeding a local European short-grain rice with a long-grain Asian variety that carries the salt-resistant gene。 The scientists are breeding successive generations to arrive at varieties that incorporate salt tolerance but retain about 97 percent of the European rice genome (基因组)。

  46。 Why does the author mention the Spanish Civil War at the beginning of the passage?

  A) It had great impact on the life of Spanish rice farmers。

  B) It is of great significance in the records of Spanish history。

  C) Rice farmers in the Ebro Delta are waging a battle of similar importance。

  D) Rice farmers in the Ebro Delta are XXX as hard a time as in the war。

  47。 What may be XXX for rice farmers to employ in flghting their enemies?

  A) XXX enemy first。 B) Eliminating the enemy one by one。

  C) Killing two bird with one stone。 D) Using one evil to combat the other。

  48。 What do we learn about “Project Neurice”?

  A) Its goals will have to be realized at a cost。

  B) It aims to increase the yield of Spanish rice。

  C) Its immediate priority is to bring the pest under control。

  D) It tries to kill the snails with the help of climate change。

  49。 What does Neurice project manager say about the giant apple snail?

  A) It can survive only on southern European wetlands。

  B) It will invade other rice-growing regions of Europe。

  C) It multiplies at a speed beyond human imagination。

  D) It was introduced into the rice fields on purpose。

  来源:新东方

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