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2018年6月英语四级写作范文,浅析英语初学者听力

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2018年6月英语四级写作范文,浅析英语初学者听力

  如何提高演讲能力

[12].秦本彬.幼儿英语兴趣教学法初探[C].思想战线,2009:160-162.

  Third, having mentioned above two things, you can step into this diverse world, but if you want to take root into the top mountain in this diverse world, the last thing you must do. Integrating your different identities and believing that this multiple and conflicting social identities are compatible. Barack Obama has managed to be the first black president of America by gladly accepting his black identity and smartly integrating his various identities. He does not ignore the complexities straddling this two worlds, easing with his various identities. And it is because of his amazing psychological state that may help him use them to powerful effect - as in the election campaign, when he rallied pretty much all Americans who think of themselves as different. Therefore, people who have high identity integration will be easier to find peace and succeed within this diverse world.

I can't agree more with these conscious, I think the most difference of Chinese education and western style is just in it. In Chinese education, students have always implanted the ideology and the "standard answers".These methods help the government to regulate the whole country but sacrifice the individual thinking.Every intellectual revolution which has ever stirred humanity into greatness has been a passionate protest against the inert ideas. Then, alas with pathetic ignorance of human psychology, it has proceeded by some educational scheme to bind humanity afresh with inert ideas of its own fashioning.But in western style, especial in U.S, the governments and schools always put their best foot forward to improving their students' critical thinking abilities.And these authorities believe less is more, they pay more attention to system education.

  作者:哈尔滨新东方学校董添宇老师

[5]. 黄颖. 在幼儿英语教学中运用礼貌策略实施素质教育[J].长江大学学报(社会科学版)2006(4):217-218.


Some people believe the purpose of education is to prepare people to be useful members for society. Others say that the purpose of education is to achieve the personal ambition. 

  In modern society, it has been a phenomenon that there are more and more opportunities to use English, not only in different exams but also in our daily life。 Among the abilities of using English, speaking ability must be a practical one that every educated person should possess。 And the fluency in English expression must be a result of a set of really tough work。

3.5Improving English Listening Ability in Life

  First, identity is something, but your ability is everything. People around us always like to complain about this unfair world. For example, once you rushed to mail your resume, in a result, you waited for nothing just because you are not good at English. And then you come to blame on yourself “why was I born in China, not America?” But less people realize it is your ability to determine your altitude, rather than your own identity. Thus work harder to improve your ability is an important way to succeed in this diverse world.

On one hand, I believe the meaning of people's lives is to do some contribution to the society.The reason why human race can progressively upgrade the level over and over years because of the individual education.As long as the global economy grows togetherly, and these co-operations will come closer than before. Without the effort and insist of every member of every nation, the whole human race wouldn't be able to progress.

  All in all, on the basis of the causes mentioned above, the significance of reading can never be overemphasized。 Consequently, my sincere hope is that all the college students could continue to improve our abilities in every respect。 Only in this way can we get more achievements and reach our ultimate goals。

Now most children are only child, and their parents are very strict with them. Generally speaking, after school they are not allowed to go out to play with their friends. Instead, they are asked to stay at home and do homework. In fact, many scholars believe that lacking of communication may prevent students from improving their listening ability. But actually, if the students can use the long time properly, the same, their listening ability can be improved.

  Given where diverse world develops today, closed-mindedness has no place in this world.

As white had said:"In training a child to activity of thought, above all things, we must beware of what I will call "inert ideas"---that is to say, ideas that are merely received into the mind without being utilized, or tested, or thrown into fresh combination.

  In modern society, it has been a trend that diverse English examinations put tremendous emphasis on the ability of reading。 When facing the subject that, as undergraduates, how we could improve our reading ability constantly, different people hold different opinions。

3.7.1 Reading Questions First

  Second, communication better the mutual understanding. On the basis of common language, we are able to know what other people’s saying, but sometimes the words you express is not equal to what other people’s hearing about because of the different culture background. So having a good communication will benefit different identities’ real understanding. And being sincere, patient, kind and benevolent are all characteristics that a good communicator should have. In particular, in this diverse world, communication should be involved into our family, work and even life.

Even so, there are still many aspects we have to consider sincerely due to the fact that every person is not only live in the society, which still must have to live with every day's base life and owner moral world.And the knowledge what we gain from school is the pure stone of intelligence which also teach us how to face the challenge of the versatile world and find the orientation until we can confirm the position of our own life.Base on the above conclusion as I mentioned, I suggest the below three aims of education.

  来源:新东方

Factors influencing the listening ability of English beginners mainly include personal factors and school factors. It is necessary to analyze them if the listening ability of English beginners must be improved.


The last thing I would like to discuss is about the problem-solving ability.And this kind of abilities depends on the scientific and logical side of education, we remember that here also ideas which are not utilized are positively harmful.By utilizing an idea, I mean relating it to that stream, compounded of sense perceptions, feelings, hopes, desires, and of mental activities adjusting thought to thought, which forms our life.I can imagine a set of beings which might fortify their souls by passively reviewing disconnected ideas. Humanity is not built that way---except perhaps some editors of newspapers.

  如何提升阅读能力

2.2.1 Unreasonable Arrangement of Listening


Firstly, education is to foster our self-educating ability. I do believe this ability is based on the interesting and further curiosity motive. But unfortunately, hundreds of thousands of students have to face the passed exam of the university which makes them too much press and overdraught their potential motivation.Once the students pass the exam and enter the college, out of their parents' supervision, they lose their cool and spoil themselves.Not surprisingly, the poor result is not out of imagination.The worse phenomenon is these habits will be of them even accompanies their whole lives.

  As an undergraduate, my proposal related to the means to promote the speaking ability is based on the following aspects。 Speaking ability, as far as I am concerned, acquires unceasing exercises of both listening and speaking。 As a consequence, we ought to make good use of the materials around us, such as the Internet, which will either improve our study efficiency or arouse our interest in speaking。 The application, Ted, is a perfect example。 It provides us with a great number of speeches delivered by diverse famous people from all kind of fields。 Through constantly listening to these speeches and reading loudly and clearly, our speaking ability must be improved continuously。

3.6.2 Improving Vocabulary


  To sum up, on the basis of the cause mentioned above, the significance of speaking can never be overemphasized。 Thus, my sincere hope is that all the college students could continue to improve their abilities in every respect。 Only in this way can we get more achievements and reach our ultimate goals。

Most teachers are using the "three steps” in their English lesson. The first step is to listen to the recoding, without using any back information. The second step is to ask students to do multiple –choice. The third step is to check the answers. The teaching strategy is very single. But most students are active and curious; they can not stand the boring single teaching strategy and demand more various teaching methods. Their teaching strategy is hard to meet whose demands and easy to bore them, but the lifelong learning view is based on the students ’interest of English. If the student’s interest can not be satisfied, they will gradually lose the interest.

The president Trump has been highlighting “buy American, and hire American”, but he fails to recognize we are now living in a diverse world, like Indian people working as managers of many American conglomerates. But how we make it as these Indian people dropping their dual identities? There are three steps as following.

  [写作题目解析]本次四级写作考查的仍然是问题解决型的议论文,和17年12月份的题目较为类似。这篇文章的思路同学们可以这样展开,在首段做好主题引出即可,而后在二段给出相应的提升阅读和写作能力的具体办法,最后一段总结全文,再次重申阅读和写作能力的重要性。关于提升阅读和写作能力的办法给出一些思路:学校可以多组织相关活动来促进学生进行日常的阅读和写作,个人可以多在日常学习中注重知识的积累,并多多参与学校组织的相关活动。

Most English beginners are generally weak in English knowledge because of their young age and lack of social experience. They are still at a low level of voice, vocabulary, and grammar .In addition, on the Chinese and Western cultures, especially the Western culture, history, geography, religion, politics, customs, and life, their knowledge is not very rich. Pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar, etc. constitute an important part of the language. Without such basic knowledge, it is almost impossible to master a language, especially mastering a foreign language.


  As an undergraduate, my proposals related to the means to promote the reading ability are based on the following aspects。 To begin with, reading ability, a basic grounding of English learning ability, would be well improved by unceasingly reading various articles, such as fictions, magazines and newspapers。 Additionally, as we all know, writing reading notes is a wise method, which would contribute to cultivating a positive reading habit。 Along with the analyses of different kinds of articles, not only can we accumulate a great deal of knowledge, but also we are able to enhance our reading ability。 Last but not least, we ought to make good use of the electronic products, such as iPad and Kindle, which will either improve our study efficiency or arouse our interest in reading。

Background is related to the listening material, the character in the material , the culture, the lifestyle, and the understanding of concept and so on. Its main role is to provide the listener judgments, reasoning, the basis of speculation, etc. The weak knowledge about cultural background is caused by the following reasons:(1) being lack of introduction of background timely in material, (2)being lack of background introduction in teacher's teaching process (3)students` neglecting of cultural background knowledge in their preparation process.

  2018年上半年全国大学英语四六级考试于6月16日进行,新浪教育24小时全程关注,为你带来第一手四六级考试资讯,以下为英语四级写作范文:

2.1.2.1 Having Disgusting Mood of Learning

Introduction

[10].李奕.背景知识在听力理解中的作用[J].浙江师大学报,1997(5):84-87.

浅析英语初学者听力能力的提高

Prior to each examination, there is a record on the exam requirements. For the candidates who are very clear of the requirements, they can use this time to read the questions, and spend a few seconds in getting a general view of the questions .Its purpose is to see how many questions there are in each part and what kind of question they are. Then the students can use the left time to read the issues carefully.

The students are often distracted when they are engaging in learning. When the teacher is having class, they always look around or outside and can not concentrate on their books and thinking. When they are doing their homework or exercise, they always want to do something else and then go to do. For example, they do their homework for 20 minutes and then play games for another 20 minutes and come back to do homework again. They are often interrupted by other ideas or activities. Not only the above, some students are often absent-minded and always listen to something else when the teacher is having class, even they feel it difficult to follow the teacher’s instruction to do homework.

关键词

The time when students are really involved in English learning is in the secondary school. And in most primary schools, the time of having English class is just one or two hours and the teacher seldom emphasize the importance of vocabulary and grammar. As a result, the students in primary school just know a few words and vocabularies and they can not be able to write them, even they know a little about their pronunciation. So the students feel it difficult to comprehend the native speakers.

II. Factors Influencing the Listening Ability of English Beginners

With economic globalization, English, as the communicational tool of the world's common language, is more important than before. In China, the growing trend of learning English makes students learn English much earlier. In 2001, the Ministry of Education issued the "English standard". According to it, for the English beginners, listening ability is one of the five essential abilities (listening, speaking reading, writing and translating) and an important part of English practical ability and also a standard to measure the quality of English teaching.

1.5 The SingleTeaching Strategy.

This paper believes what the previous scholars have researched reflects the importance of improving listening ability of English beginners. As we all know, listening ability is one of the five essential abilities (listening, speaking, reading, writing and translating) and an important part of English practical ability and also a standard to measure the quality of English teaching. If a student can not listen well, his or her speaking, reading and other abilities may be affected.

3.7.4 Taking Note in Abbreviation Form

[9].刘学云.英语初学者常见书面错误分析.山东外语教学[J]1982(01):19

徐袖珍.优化过程、激化兴趣、结合课文、发展思维——论小学英语听力教学的教学技能 [J].湖南省政法管理学院学报2002(2):55-58

1.1 Being Lack of Interest in Listening

2.1.3 English Beginners` Limited Knowledge

Many textbooks chosen by the schools are unreasonable. The students use the same set of teaching materials which have been outdated over the years and can not meet the modern students` needs but the teacher seldom train the students with some listening materials out from the outdated textbook . A good listening material should relate to very sides of the society, such as daily life, culture, education, customs, people, science and so on. And also the sentences of a good listening material should be brief, oral and connect to people’s affection. The structure of them should also be brief and should involve much omission. However, some textbooks chosen do not fit with these.

Speech is the foundation of the language learning and people always identify words and sentences through phonetics. The poor phonetic knowledge is one of the main reasons which result in poor listening ability. The author in this paper believes that there are some ways to improve the students` phonetic knowledge. First of all, in the first listening class, students should be required to review the international phonetic alphabets, master how to pronounce each phoneme and its pronunciation methods, know the phonetic features of vowels and consonants and distinguish them, repeatedly listen and read the international phonetic alphabets until you can pronounce them correctly. Second, students should master rules of pronunciation such as sound rules, continuity, loss of blasting, provincial sound, assimilation and stress .Also teachers and students should analyze and induct students` phonetic problems. Third, teachers should ask the students to imitate intonation and understand the speaker’s attitude, feeling, emotion, or implication. Through listening practice and imitation, students can understand the implications of the words and sentences more easily and quickly.

3.5.3 Watching Cartoons

2.1.2.3Not Knowing the Learning Goals

[15].陶德清.学习态度的理论与研究[M].广州:广东人民出版社,2001,4. [15].王奕君.浅探幼儿园英语语音教学的有效方法 [J].外语教学与研究,2009

3.6.1Improving Speech

English basic knowledge mainly includes speech, vocabulary and grammar, and they are all necessary in listening comprehension. Without knowing about these, it is impossible to get something from listening. In the following, the author of this paper gives some ways to improve the students` basic English knowledge.

随着世界的全球化,英语扮演着越来越重要的角色,我国开始学习英语的人也越来越多。可是对于初学者来说,英语听力能力是他们的一个薄弱而又被忽视的环节,因此提高他们这一方面的能力就显得尤为重要了。本文运用了是什么、怎么样相结合的研究方法,首先作者指出了中国英语初学者的现状,然后分析了英语初学者英语听力能力薄弱的原因,最后针对这些原因提出了一些相应的具体的解决问题的建议。

[14].宋芳、桑元微、孙力华.幼儿英语语音教学[J].读与写杂志,2007(7):29

In our present English enlightenment education, including the teachers and the students, most of them ignore listening teaching and learning .During the listening teaching of English beginners, most teachers are just limited to ask students to listen to the videos or tapes in classroom, and even never give them homework of training their listening ability. Students at that age, because of their limited cognitive ability and self-control, also can not realize the needs to improve their listening ability, or even raise a sense of exclusion. In the process of teaching. The main characters are teachers and students. If both locate the listening ability to an unseasonable place, the listening ability will present a poor state.

1.4 Being Lack of Knowledge aboutCultural Background.

Ⅲ. Ways to Improve the Listening Ability of English Beginners

In China the listening condition of English beginners is not ideal. Generally speaking, the English beginners are lack of interest and their teaching strategy is single. In addition, their knowledge on phonetic and grammar and vocabulary is poor and weak. Besides these, they have less cultural background knowledge, either.

Games should be taught in English in the process of elementary education, and they are also means of teaching English in such education. In the process of the game, the beginners` listening ability can be improved through their movement, facial expressions, and language, ect. (宋芳、桑元微、孙力华,2007). For example, in role play "Doll House", the students can acquire some words, such as dad, mum, baby, brother, sister, grandpa, grandma, sleep, eat, milk, coffee, meat, bread, juice so on and so forth. Another example, when playing the game ”Snow” ,through dialogue with other characters, students can improve their listening level. Another example again, when the words about color blue, green, yellow, red are taught, the teacher can organize the students to play a game called “squatting, squatting, squatting “.First of all, the teacher asks four students to come to the blackboard and require them wear the headgear of these four colors .Then the game begins, when the teacher says: “red squats” ,then the student wearing red headgear squats at once, saying :blue squats”, then the student worn blue headgear squats… Of course, the turn is up to the students. In this game, it is much easier to acquire the pronunciation of these words for English beginners.

中学课程辅导(初一版).2004(04):45

Besides, in listening training, the length of time is not reasonable. Many teachers focus on the training time excessively and just use the single training model, So the students are very easy to be tired and the sufficiency is not satisfactory.

Being naughty is the nature of children. Pupils sometimes do not like learning because the school time reduces their time of playing. On the other hand, the pupils always don’t make their strong resolutions and the textbooks used in elementary school don’t satisfy the students` interests because they attach much to their scientific and logical characteristics. In addition, the teaching method is basically priority to classroom teaching and the teaching method is single. So the students hate learning and don’t like to read and have a class, being unable to complete their assignments. They always look for excuses where they do not need to learn. In addition, they often use other activities which are far away from learning to occupy their learning time.

It is obvious that listening to English songs can improve English listening ability. English songs, especially for children, are rich in content, simple language and fast-paced rhyme which can satisfy the children’s interest and decrease their tension, but also resolve their loneliness. More importantly, they will acquire the pronunciation of the lyrics (宋芳、桑元微、孙力华.幼儿2007). For example, during listening to the song "Days of week", the English beginners will be able to recognize the seven words: "Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday and Sunday". Later, when they hear these words, they can tell which word it is. In this paper, the author gives several songs for reference.1. This is the Way 2.Five Little Ducks 3.Are You Sleeping; 4. Rain Rain, Go Away and so on.

3.7.2 Guessing the Listening Content

After analyzing the factors from personal side and school side, some suggestions may be given on the ways to improve the listening ability of English beginners.

3.5.2Seeing English Movies

3.6Improving Students’ Basic English Knowledge

At this time, the students can use some abbreviations or symbols to replace the complex or long words or phrases. For example, "education" can be abbreviated to "edu"; "equal" can be abbreviated to "=";" market "can be abbreviated into the "mkt" and so on, By the way, students should try to use abbreviations in their dairy listening training, or they will not get a habit of using abbreviation in their real listening examination.

[16].项奕.小学启蒙英语教学SWOT分析及对策探讨——以上海市小学英语教学为 [A].教育战线,2010:139

[2]. 宝建东.The Functions of Listening Strategies in English Listening Comprehension [J]. 石家庄法商职业学院教学与研究.2007(03)

To learn English from comics is a good learning method. In comics short sentences and vivid pictures are often used, which make children feel easy. Even if it is slightly difficult, the use of picture makes English more understandable. At the same time, the pictures and the dialogues have carried on the language scene and the cultural habits, which strengthened the memory of what you have got from the cartoon. In addition, the long time comics reading are not only good for language learners to learn English, but also benefits the cultivation of optimistic humor study of character. For English beginners, how to learn English by watching cartoons? Generally speaking, there are 4 steps: 1.Select the cartoons: select those which you are interested in to cultivate your learning enthusiasm and continuity. 2. Learn language points. From the humorous dialogues in the comics, you can cull important words and sentences to do extensive practice. For instance, you may try to find out synonyms or antonyms of a word, or you can undertake English-Chinese and Chinese-English translation practice and see their difference. 3. Induct similar scenes and understand the cultural background. You can make summary and think about the culture hidden behind the comics on the basis of the first two steps to deepen the English study.4. Reproduce and inspect: Tell the very interesting or very meaningful cartoons - which you have watched, to others in English. If you can do this very well, it will prove that you have truly mastered the language knowledge, and also English in your eyes will naturally become vivid and lovely.

A person's listening ability relates to the above English knowledge closely. Pronunciation and tone are the prerequisite to distinguish different words; vocabularies make up the cells of a language, without these cells, the language would not exist; and grammar is the framework of a language. If we want to know what the language says, we’d better know the grammar. In the process of listening, if people lack these English knowledge or they do not know the differences between China and Western countries, people’s listening ability will be affected.

Personal learning motivation is a fundamental motive for people to make efforts to realize the learning purpose. In the learning process you may have felt you do not want to learn anything any more since you don’t have a very clear motivation. Fundamentally, this is because your learning motivation is not strong or you have little learning motivation. This situation can directly affect your progress in learning and bring your later study a lot of pressure.

The listeners should mark the semantics center and keywords in the questions, then analyze the implied information of structure relations and lexical cohesion relations, finally, predict what content they will hear in the record. It is much easier to understand the listening material if they have prepared for it.

2.1.1 Teachers’ and Students’ Ignoring Attitude

2.2.2The Unreasonable Lasting Time of Listening Training

[4].张艳丰. Research of Metacognitive Strategy to Listening Comprehension of Outside China[J].教学理论与实践.2008.

[13].齐筠.语言文化及英语听力教学[J].外语学刊,1998(1):63-65.

[6].蒋祖康.学习策略与听力的关系——中国英语本科学生素质调查分报告之一[J]. 外语教学与研究1994(01)

First of all, in terms of the films, it always tells a story .In it, people’s psychological language can be reflected well and objectively. The author in this paper thinks that this is the essence of film. Films not only stimulate students` interest in learning English, but also inspire students to think of and know about knowledge (王奕君, 2009). Of course, for the English beginners, the choice of film has certain requirements, because their English level is still at a low stage. The too difficult will cause them to lose interest, but the too simple is useless for listening ability improving. So they should choose their own level of English movies. In addition, the students should apply some skills while listening, such as preparing notebook for note taking, understanding the plot summary, selecting fragment, recording vocabulary from the film, knowing of characters in the context, paying attention to cultural differences and so on. In this paper ,several movies or websites are suggested to improve English beginners` listening ability :1, "Disney Magic English , " (teaching materials for English beginners)2," Disney English ", 3" Tom and Jerry " 4、website 英语听力_旺旺英语学习网 / efayin / flashflashyinbiao / and

The listening test differs from other paper test where all information can be read and analyzed again and again. In the listening test, the recorded tape is just played in limited time, so the problem solving is at the same time with playing the recording and the students only have a very short time to think and make a choice. To get a good result, in addition to getting good knowledge of grammar and rich cultural background of English-Spoken countries, the students need to have the good listening skills: reading question, guessing the listening content, listening carefully, and taking note in abbreviation form, taking note in abbreviation form.

2.1 Personal Factors

Without knowledge of grammar, we can not learn a language well. Good knowledge of grammar can help students have better listening comprehension. But some students think that grammar is not important and they can learn English well as long as they remember more words, listen more, speak more and read more. This view that they ignore the grammar causes their difficult listening comprehension. In this paper, we think grammar is to the listening comprehension what water is to the fish. However, how to improve the students` knowledge of grammar? First, the teacher should make students realize the importance of grammar knowledge; guide the students to review it systematically after class. Second, in listening training, when students meet grammar obstacles and are unable to understand the sentences, the teacher should analyze them patiently and induct the grammatical phenomenon in order to let the students grasp the grammar knowledge and understand what the sentence means.

3.5.1 Listening to English Songs

We have already mentioned the unreasonable teaching arrangement in above text. For the shortcomings, the teachers should scientifically ensure time for listening. Once a survey was done, the researchers found that, before the 21st minutes, the correct rate reached a peak, over 21 minutes, the correct rate will begin to decrease (刘巧媛, 2010). Therefore, the time of listening training should be within 21 minutes, more training time is not efficient, and less of it will not have the training effect. Secondly, we must use effective listening training, such as various training forms, positive air and classroom interaction. Language learning is a process which needs repeated stimulus, practicing to correct, strengthening and consolidating and finally applying (秦本彬,2009). Before listening, the students should skim the material in the exercise book. The specific steps are: from the first to the third time, the students can read out the material while listening (if it will disturb the students around you, keep silent) If the students can’t follow the sentence smoothly, they can pause and listen it again. Thirdly, listen repeatedly till the students can understand the text while abandoning the material .In this way, the students can recognize the words in the material when listening and won’t make mistakes in future. Finally, when selecting the listening materials, different contents should be chosen for students at different stages. The contents should be entrenched and targeted to improve the listening ability. Also, the easy and difficult degree of material should fit with the students. The too easy will result in losing the meaning of training and the too difficult will make the students lose their heart and confidence .Besides, the length of the choosing material should be considered. The too long will scatter the students` attention and the too short waster of time. In addition, the content in the material should be new and satisfy students` interest. In this paper, the author gives some websites for English beginners to practice themselves in free time: 1, 在线英语听力室 2, . Douding Network.

3.2 Cultivating Students` Learning Motivation

2.1.2.2Being Easily Distracted

If the speakers in the record read the listening material in a very fast speed, then many candidates are not easy to remember all information and feel difficult to take down what they have heard in the record, especially when many answers to the questions are involved in a very short period of time.

[7].刘巧媛.外语听力训练中听力疲劳与听力识别相关性试验研究[A].教育教学2010:139.

Someone says: "Attitude is everything". Although this statement exaggerates the function of attitude, to a certain extent, there is something in it. The effects of attitude on language learning are mainly reflected in the following aspects: (1) the relation between attitude and foreign language learning: the learners who are positive to learn a foreign language may learn it more easily and make progress more quickly .Conversely, the learners who hold negative attitude towards the study of foreign language may improve their learning slowly. (2) The relation between attitude and enthusiasm: attitude directly affects enthusiasm. Those learners who stop learning after studying for a short period and can’t last to the ending time are largely passive and negative learners, the low enthusiasm will result in poor learning. (3) The relation between attitude and classroom behavior: attitude affects classroom activities of participation (张锡伟,2010). Guildsman’s research shows that the student’s good performance is proposition to their good attitude. Namely a student who holds positive attitude acts more active in class, and his grades are better (cited from Dardner,R.C, W.E. Lambert,1972) . Tao Deqing thought that attitude contained a certain behavioral tendencies by itself. It is a important psychological phenomenon (陶德清, 2001). From his point of view, we can see the close relationship between attitude and behavior. Tao Deqing believed attitude affected social judgment, affordability and activities of the initiative (陶德清, 2001).

In the arrangement of listening training course, the teachers are weak in scientific and systematic arrangement for training objectives of the students in different semesters and different stages. Too difficult or too easy scheduling, too concentrated or too decentralized arrangement will affect the student's attention and enthusiasm. If the arrangement is not satisfactory, irregularities, then, the confidence, the attention and the interest of the students will be affected, and thus, it will raise a negative impact, lowering the standard of teaching listening.

Then, are there any ways to change the learning motivation and improve the learning efficiency? The author in this paper believes that there are some ways to inspire and cultivate students' learning motivation: 1. take into account emotional communication and establish harmonious relationship between teachers and students. Good relationship between teachers and students is an assurance to improve school education quality and an important aspect of social spiritual civilization. All the teaching work need be done on the basis of harmonious relationship between teachers and students. 2.Improve teaching art and cultivate students' learning interest. Teaching art means that the teacher uses clever conception,appropriate analogy,flexible teaching method and vivid language in the teaching process. This can interest the students and make them be interested in learning. 3. Establish incentive mechanism and let the student experience fulfillment. There is close relation between the children’s psychological development and their achievements. A child will experience the pleasure from his or her challenging work, through overcoming difficulties; thereby incentive mechanism can enhance the self-confidence and interest of students.4. Help the students establish long-term goals. Learning goals can make more positive effect for students than those without target arrangements.

3.1 Having a Positive Face Strategy to Cultivate English Beginners’ Serious and Responsible Attitude towards Listening.

3.7 Using Listening Skills in Test

Personal factors always involve students and teachers. This paper mainly analyses the factors of students’ and teachers ’attitude, students’ learning motivation and English beginners’ limited knowledge.

2.2 School Factor

Some students are casual when they learn something. They do not know what knowledge they should get and what knowledge does not suit them. They always learn something without choosing because they are lack of initiative and do not know what they should need. They always follow others` view and do not have very clear goals.

3.7.3 Listening Carefully

Vocabulary is a necessity of conversation, also a necessity of getting the main idea in a dialogue. Without enough vocabulary, people can not communicate any information efficiently. As for this situation, what should students do? This paper believe that students should expand their basic vocabulary through intensive and extensive reading, grasp the word formation rules and teachers should encourage students to undertake more listening training and to use the words they have learned in diaries writing or composition, urging students to know as much as possible.

According to many scholars, students’ learning motivation affects students deeply. As for the English beginners of China, the following characteristics are common.

[8].林新事.英语初学者良好学习习惯养成新论[J].遵义师范学院学报2002(01).

3.4 Using Classroom Games to Improve English Listening Ability

1.3 Being Weak in Vocabulary and Grammar

[1]. Vandergrift L.Facilitating Second Language Listening Comprehension [J]. ELT Journal. 1993(3):168.

Brown and Levinson proposed politeness strategy; they think that courtesy is people’s need to meet face needs. So their politeness theory is often called "Face-saving Theory" (referred to as FST) (cited from黄颖,2006). The so-called positive face, for people, refers to wanting recognition and praise from others(黄颖,2006). English beginners are generally not mature enough in terms of age. Although they have the ability to tell things around, they also need teacher’s evaluation and guidance and inspiring. Therefore, in the process of listening teaching, teachers should encourage those students whose listening abilities have improved. For example, when a student does well in a listening exercise, the teacher may say: "How wonderful! How did you do that? "or "very good”. Adding a tag questions after an exclamatory expression shows the teacher’s surprise and happiness. The later sentence shows the teachers positive attitude towards the student’s listening ability. Thus the student’s face in front of the class is raised. This positive politeness strategy approach encourages the listening ability of students timely and enables them to establish self-esteem in front of other students so that their interest, self-confidence and determination will be increased .these can benefit the students` listening ability.

I. Listening Status of Chinese English Beginners

摘 要

Anyhow, the best way to encourage students is to adopt positive methods, rather than the negative means, in this way we can stimulate the students' learning motivation.

"Interest is the best teacher". In practical teaching, in some regions, especially in the poor regions, the English beginners are lack of interests due to being lack of the modern teaching equipments in schools, such as multi-media room, DVD, MP3, etc. Even in some schools, the modern equipments are placed just for decoration,not for practical use. Other reasons resulting in low learning interest of the beginners are the teachers` boring teaching methods, the vapidity of the teaching materials and so on.

Also a lot of scholars have studied how to improve the English learners` listening ability. In the early of the 1970s, many applied linguists proposed listening strategy theories, the famous ones are O’Malley’s and Chaumont’s. They classified the learning strategies used by the learners in the listening process into: metacognitive strategy, cognitive strategy, social and emotional strategies (cited from宝建东, 2007). Vandergrift believes that metacognitive strategy is effective to improve the English beginners` listening ability (Vandergrift L, 1993). Professor Mendelsohn thinks teachers should help learners use other means to obtain information(cited from张艳丰,2008). In addition to the use of video, the multi-media teaching also can be put into use (cited from张艳丰, 2008). In the English teaching of China, people do not pay much attention to the listening ability improvement. Currently, the research of it is just on the stage of description. The intervention stage is still being explored. As a result, no systematic or sophisticated teaching can be put into practice. In the 1990s, some scholars, such as Jiang Zukang did some research on the relationship between listening strategies and listening ability, and his result confirmed the validity of listening strategies (蒋祖康, 1994). But just a few of them studied how to improve the English beginners` listening ability. In the area of listening teaching of primary school , Xu Xiuzhen made a research on teaching procedures, technical processing , how to interest students, how to deal with the relation between listening teaching and text teaching ,and the relation between listening training and thinking(徐袖珍,2002). She believes that teaching should follow four steps: 1, pre-listening; 2, listening; 3Upon listening screening; 4, repeated listening. At the same time, she raised the methods against the above specific issues, such as diversifying of teaching methods, enhancing the interest of students, etc. (徐袖珍,2002). Meng Hongtao analyzed the five factors which influenced the listening ability: 1. vocabulary, 2. grammar, 3. voice, 4. Speed, 5.cultural background, and then raised some corresponding methods according to the factors. (孟红桃,2004). Xiang Yi believes that English beginners, especially those in primary school children, should focus on listening and speaking ability very much (项奕,2010). Although many scholars have done a lot of research on English beginners and how to improve their listening ability, they mostly just give suggestions in theory and most of the suggestions are very abstract.

Bibliography

3.3Arraning Teaching of Listening Rationality

2.2.3Unreasonable Material Selection

School factors account much in improving the listening ability of English beginners. In the following, this paper analyzes some school factors which result in the low listening ability. They are mainly unreasonable arrangement of listening, the unreasonable schedule and the unreasonable material selection.

Students are the most receptive at their young age, and one’s development of young stage will influence the development of his whole life. Thus, the listening ability of English beginners proves particularly important. Till now, a lot of scholars have studied how to improve the English ability of the English beginners. Lin Xinshi said that cultivation of good learning habits is of much essence to English beginners(林新事,2004). He tried to propose some novel ideas and thoughts about cultivating good learning habits of English language novices. He stated that the cultivation of good learning habits goes through three stages: 1) The stage of good habits selecting, 2) the stage of consolidation and reinforcement, 3) the stage of good habit using and transferring. A thesis said:“If I were an English beginner, I would read more stories and listen more tapes. If I were an English beginner of middle school , I would read and recite beautiful texts accurately and fluently. I should read more English after class, and retell the stories to my classmates in simple English. And also, I will learn some basic grammar knowledge to strengthen my self-consciousness to study.”(中学课程辅导初一版,2004).Liu Xueyun analyzed the common writing errors of English Beginners (刘学云,1982).

本人郑重声明:本论文是本人独立进行研究工作所取得的成果,成果不存在知识产权争议,除文中已经注明引用的内容外,本论文不含任何其他个人或集体已经发表或撰写过的作品成果。对本文的研究做出重要贡献的个人和集体均已在文中以明确方式标明。本人完全意识到本声明的法律结果由本人承担。

[11].孟红桃.影响英语听力理解的因素及提高听力的策略[J].高教论坛,2004(6):127-129

2.1.2Ambiguous Learning Motivation

The teachers in many schools over emphasize on text teaching, writing exercise, but put the training of students` listening ability at a subordinate status .So the time of listening training is not sufficient.

[3]. Gardner, R.C,W.E. Lambert. Attitudes and Motivation in Second Language Learning [M], Rowley, MA, Newbury House,1972.

In the following, this paper makes a specific research on how to improve listening ability of the English beginners on the bases of personal and school factors .According to these factors, some suggests are offered, hoping to serve the English beginners.

[17].张锡伟。试论情感因素在语言学习的作用[J]。1914-2010 China Academic Journal Electronic Publishing House.2010

英语初学者;听力能力;提高

1.2 Weak Knowledge on Phonetic Characteristics and Rules.

When listening to the record material, the students must be targeted to concentrate on capturing the information needed to answer the questions and do not try to make clear every word or every phrase. Generally speaking, the candidates should get the information about “what, who, where, what attitude”.

3.6.3 Improving Grammar

Sound recognition involves the identification of voice, intonation, sound quality and so on. As is known to all, there are only 26 alphabets, but the number of their pronunciations is nearly twice as much as them. For most students, when they meet these letters in words or phrases, they can not identify which pronunciation they should articulate. What’s more, the same letter may correspond to different pronunciations. And also, different letters can correspond to the same pronunciation. In addition to the above, in different context, speakers` voice and intonation are different, so the students can not learn the phonetic characteristics and rules well.

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