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英语的句子结构简化版,2018英语二翻译难度分析

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英语的句子结构简化版,2018英语二翻译难度分析

2018考研英语已在2017年12月23日下午落下帷幕,今年英二考题的翻译部分在文本选择方面难度适中。下面就英语二翻译进行深度解析。

2018年12月23日下午五点全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语刚刚结束,不出所料,今年考研英语二翻译题型也难度不大,考英语二的同学应该能够在翻译这一题型上拿下自己理想的分数。下面就18年英语二的翻译题型给考研小伙伴们进行简单解析,并且对明年要参加考研的考生们该如何复习英语二的翻译部分给出几点建议。

相约在成长的路上

很多同学觉得英语的句型结构特别复杂,因此而产生畏难情绪。其实,只要能够提纲挈领地掌握英语的三种句子结构,就可以快速建立起英语的架构了。

英语二翻译选自2017年3月16日Blinkist发表的名为“Why Bill Gates Reads 50 Books A Year (And How You Can Too!)”的文章,就题材来说属于文学传记类,主要内容是比尔·盖茨为何读书及其读书对他职业生涯的影响。

今年英语(二)的翻译很有意思,属于人物传记,节选自Why Bill Gates Reads 50 Books A Year (And How You Can Too!),英语二的翻译难度整体相比2017年有所下降。文章主要论述了成功人士比尔·盖茨从小就养成了阅读的好习惯,该习惯对其成功的起到的作用。

英语简单句、并列句、复合句解析

通俗地说,根据英语句子结构的组成,由易到难,可以分成三类:简单句、并列句和复合句。

文章共有9句话。第一句话是一个简单句,考查了不定式作后置定语。这里需要注意的单词词组是occupation, homework assignment和career path。该句翻译为一名五年级的学生的家庭作业要求他从一系列的职业中选出他未来的职业道路。句②He ticks “astronaut” but quickly adds “scientist” to the list and selects it as well。是一个并列句。注意单词astronaut。翻译为“他选择了“宇航员”,但很快又将“科学家”加入名单。”句③:The boy is convinced that if he reads enough, he can explore as many career paths as he likes。 该句的考点有宾语从句,条件状语从句和比较结构。该句翻译为“这个男孩确信如果他读的书足够多,他就能想探索多少条职业道路,就探索多少条。”句④And so he reads—everything from encyclopedias to science fiction novels。考察的知识点是介宾短语作后置定语,翻译为“因此他读书——从百科全书读到科幻小说。”句⑤He reads so fervently that his parents have to institute a “no reading policy” at the dinner table。考察的是结果状语从句,翻译为:他如此狂热地阅读以至于他的父母不得不制定一条吃饭时“不能读书”的规矩。

文章一共由九句话构成,主要考点包括:并列结构、非谓语动词、介词短语、状语从句,宾语从句。整篇文章几乎没有长难句,即使句子很长,但是结构并不复杂,单词也不生僻,比如文章最长的两个句子:句⑥ “That boy was Bill Gates, and he hasn’t stopped reading yet—not even after becoming one of the most successful people on the planet。” 和句⑦ “Nowadays, his reading material has changed from sci-fi and reference books: recently, he revealed that he reads at least 50 nonfiction books a year。” 这两个句子都没有复杂的多重镶嵌结构。英语二翻译更多考查的是学生们对个别单词词义在具体语境中的运用,上下文的整体性,一致性,连贯性及协调性。要求考生们不但能理解原文要表达的意思,还能用通顺、流畅且符合汉语表达习惯和搭配习惯的语言完整的把原文意思表达出来。这其实对于考生的英语基本功和汉语表达能力都是有很高的要求的。

2013-04-07 18:02阅读:7,627

一、  简单句

前几句文本都在讲述一个小男孩的故事,从第六句开始作者揭开了谜底,这个小男孩就是比尔·盖茨。句⑥:That boy was Bill Gates, and he hasn’t stopped reading yet—not even after becoming one of the most successful people on the planet。 考点为并列句,并列句的主干分别为:that boy was Bill Gates, and he hasn’t stopped reading …,参考译文是“这个男孩就是比尔•盖茨,他从未停止过阅读——即便在他成为全球最成功人士之后也如此。” 句⑦:Nowadays, his reading material has changed from sci-fi and reference books: recently, he revealed that he reads at least 50 nonfiction books a year。 该题考察的是并列结构和宾语从句。句子的主干分别为… material has changed from…。; he revealed …; he reads …50 …books…;其中“sci-fi”是“science fiction”的缩写,意为科幻小说。 “reveal”是考研的核心词汇,翻译为 “揭露”。“nonfiction”理解为“非虚构的”。该句翻译为“今天,比尔盖茨的读物已经不再是科幻小说和参考书目:最近,他表示自己每年至少阅读50本非小说读物。” 句⑧:Gates chooses nonfiction titles because they explain how the world works。考察的语法知识点是原因状语从句和宾语从句。翻译为“盖茨选择读非虚构类图书,因为这些书解释了世界是如何运作的。”句⑨:“Each book opens up new avenues of knowledge to explore,” Gates says。考察的是直接引语,翻译为“每本书都开辟了探索新知识的道路。” 比尔盖茨说。

结合这两年英语二的题,如果给后面2019年的同学一点点启示的话,后续备考的同学需要注重英语的基础,突破词汇和语法,习得长句的分析能力,适当配合阅读文章的精读来巩固词汇和语法。前期可以按照英语一的要求来复习,因为你做了英语一的翻译的长难句的话,再去训练英语二的题,就会显得易如反掌一样的轻松。2018年的同学考过了就过去了,希望大家放下,好好休息轻松一段时间,而对于2019年的同学而言你们的路才刚刚开始,要努力,要坚持学习,这样一直就可以取得很好的成就。

英语简单句、并列句、复合句解析

用大白话来说,简单句就是只有一个主语的句子。例如,Tom has a new book.有的简单句,也有并列的两个主语,但通常只有一个谓语动词。例如,Tom and John play football together.看到这样的句子,你就知道这是简单句了。

综上所述,英语二翻译部分和去年相比难度持平。句型的布局为简单句和复杂句交错,但是复杂句也没有像英语一考察到省略,独立主格等偏难知识点。考生只要在做题时遵循“信达”的翻译原则,保证译文准确通顺,相信一定会取得可观的分数!

简单句、并列句和复合句

二、并列句

考点一 简单句

并列句呢,顾名思义,就是有两个简单句,中间用并列关系的连词连接起来,就构成并列句了。并列句中的两个分句,就像天平的两端,分量是一样重的,地位也是一样的。例如,Tom likes this book, but he wants to play football now.在这个句子中,but就是表示转折意义的并列连词。

  1. 简单句只包含一个主谓结构.

  2. 五种简单句:

三、复合句

1) 主+谓. He comes at last.

所谓复合句呢?就是有主句和从句之分的句子了,或者说,就是一个大句子套着小句子,小句子可能是一个,也可能有很多个。大句子叫做主句,处于核心地位。小句子叫做从句,处于附属地位。主句加从句,就构成了复合句。

2) 主+系+表. She is a teacher.

可以构成复合句的从句有三种,定语从句、名词性从句和状语从句。

The soup tastes nice.

要理解这些从句的性质和作用,同样可以采取顾名思义的办法。

3) 主+谓+宾. They reached the village.

(一)定语从句

4) 主+谓+间宾+直宾.He gave me a pen.

定语从句,就是对某一个名词或代词起到修饰限定作用的从句。这个“定”字,可以理解为“限定”“确定”“定性”等等意思。

5) 主+谓+宾+宾补.I find that book very useful.

定语从句根据它在句子中的结构和作用,分成两种:限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句。

考点二 并列句

1.限制性定语从句通常紧跟在被修饰限定的词后面,例如,There seems to be nothing that is impossible to him in the world. 

并列句:两个或两个以上的简单句,用连词连接起来。

2.非限制性定语从句通常会用一个逗号和被修饰的词分开,例如, I borrowed the book Sherlock Holmes from the library last week,which is very interesting.

常用的连接词有:

这是非常明显的标记,根据有没有逗号分开,你就可以区分是不是非限制性定语从句了。

  1. 表示顺承关系的:and, not only…but also(不仅….而且….)等。

定语从句的引导词如下表:

She ______ gave us a lot of advice, _______helped us to overcome difficulties.

图片 1

Linda tried to become an excellentteacher, _____ at last she succeeded.

(二)名词性从句

  1. 表示选择关系和否定条件的有or(还是,否则)

名词性从句,同样用顾名思义的办法来理解,就是说,这些从句就像是名词一样,可以放在句子中,当做一个名词来使用。

Do you want to leave now ____ would yourather set off later?

那么想想看,一个名词可以放在句子的哪些位置来使用呢?

Wear your coat, ____ you’ll catch a cold.

1.名词可以放在句子中作主语。那么换成从句,就叫做主语从句了。例如,When we should start this project is not decided.

  1. 表示转折关系的有but, yet等。

2.名词可以放在句子中作动词或者介词的宾语,那么,换成从句,就是宾语从句了。例如,The teacher has not decided when we should start this project.

He is young, but he works hard.虽然他年轻,但工作努力。

3.名词也可以放在句中的连系动词后面,用作表语。换成从句,那就是表语从句。例如,My question is when we should start this project.

  1. 表示因果关系的有for, so 等。

4.名词性从句中的第四类,叫做同位语从句。举个例子,This is my friend Tom.在这个句子中,Tom就是my friend 的同位语。如果把它换成从句,那就是同位语从句。例如,We heard the news that he had gone away.这里面的从句就是用来说明单词news的同位语。

My leg hurts so I go to see a doctor. 我的腿疼,因此我去看医生。

引导名词性从句的连接词可分为三类:连接词that,whether,if(不充当从句的任何成分);连接代词what,whatever,who,whoever,whom,whose,which;连接副词when,where,how,why。

考点三 主从复合句:宾语从句

(三)状语从句

  1. 宾语从句的引导词

那么,什么叫做状语呢?如果让你给“状”字组词,你会想到什么?“状况”“状态”对吧?所谓状语,就是各种用来表达状况、状态、情况的成分,可用的词类和结构非常广。

(1)引导 陈述句用 that(在口语和非正式文体中常常省略)

常用的状语从句,根据它们的不同用途和含义,可以分为以下几种:

He tells me (that ) he is going shopping thisSunday.

1.时间状语从句,例如,When he came in, I was cooking in the kitchen.

(2) 引导一般疑问句用if或whether.

2.条件状语从句,例如,If you have finished your work, you can go back home.

She asked me if whether she could join us.(whether…or not)

3.原因状语从句,例如,As he didn’t know much English, he had to consult a dictionary.

(3) 引导特殊疑问句,要用原来的特殊疑问词。

4.地点状语从句,例如,Wherever we are sent to work, we should work hard.

She asked them what they were doing.

5.让步状语从句,例如,Though Mr. Cheng is very old, he works hard for the people.

  1. 宾语从句的语序 :要用陈述句语序。

6.结果状语从句,例如,Mr. Cheng was so busy indeed that he seldom went home to see his family.

I want to know when the train left.

7.目的状语从句,例如,He got up so early that he could catch the train.

  1. 宾语从句的时态

8.方式状语从句,例如,He talked about America as if he had been there several times.

(1)主句是一般现在时,一般将来时或祈使句,宾语从句可根据实际需要选用各种时态。

9.比较状语从句,例如,Tom plays basketball as well as his brother.

He tells us that he has been able to lookafter himself.

这九种状语从句有各自常用的连接词,罗列如下,方便同学们整理记忆。

(2) 主句是过去时态,宾语从句应使用过去时的相应时态。

1.时间:

They said that they had already finished thework.

when, while, as, as soon as, the moment/minute/instant, immediately/directly/instantly, before ,after, till, until,

(3) 如果宾语从句叙述的是客观事实、真理、自然现象等,不管主句用什么时态,从句都用一般现在时。

通常主句谓语是将来时、祈使句或有情态动词,状语从句谓语用现在时。

He said that light travels faster than sound.

the first/second…/last time, since,every/each time.  since从句常与完成时连用。

  1. 练习

hardly…when, no sooner…than,主句谓语用过去完成时,从句用一般过去时。

1)Sheasked me, “Will you go to the cinema tomorrow?” (改为含宾语从句的复合句)

2.条件:

She asked me______ I ______ go to the cinema the next day.

if, unless, now that, as long as, suppose/supposing, provided/providing, in case, on condition that

2) Howlovely the dog is! Can you tell me _____?

主句谓语是将来时、祈使句和有情态动词,从句用现在时。

A. where did you get it B.where will you get it C. where you got it

3.原因:

3) --- Can you tell me _____ your parents at home?

because, as, since, now that

--- I often wash clothes and sweepthe floor.

通常不能与so 连用。

A. how will you help B. how you help C. how will you help D. how do you help

4.地点:

4) When I was young, my grandfather told me that the sun ______ (rise) inthe east.

where, wherever

考点四 状语从句

5.让步:

一、状语从句在复合句中作状语,修饰主句中的动词、形容词、副词等。

although, though, even though/if, as, while, whether…or, whichever, whatever, however, no matter which/what/when/where/

1.地点状语从句

通常不能与but连用;as引导让步状语从句时,从句一般要用倒装语序。

地点状语从句通常由 where 引导。

6.结果:

Put allthe things _____they were.

so that, so… that, such…that

A. whereB. when C. whose D. which

从句中一般不用情态动词。

2.时间状语从句(主句用将来时,从句用一般现在时)

7.目的:

时间状语从句的引导词有when, before, after, until, assoon as, since, while, as 等

so that, in case ,for fear that

She wascooking when someone knock at the door.

从句中通常用情态动词

What willyou do after you finished your homework?

8.方式:

3.条件状语从句

how, as, as if/though

在条件状语从句中,常用的引导词有if, unless等。

9.比较:

If itdosen’t rain, I” ll go fishing.

than, as…as, not so…as, the + 比较级

They willhave a picnic unless it rains next Sunday.

so…as 不用于肯定句。

4.原因状语从句

原因状语从句常用的引导词有because, as, since(既然)等

He didn’tcome because he was ill.

Since weare students, we should study hard.

*Because 和so 不能在一个句子中同时使用。

  1. 结果状语从句

结果状语从句主要由so…that…, such…that…引导。

It’s sohot that we want to go swimming.

That’ssuch an interesting story that everybody likes it.

*So… that…与简单句之间的句型转换

1) that后的句子是否定句,常用too…to进行转换。

He is soyoung that he can’t go to school.à he is too young to go to school.

2) that后的句子是肯定句。常用enough to 进行转换。

The shirtwas so cheap that he bought it. à the shirt was cheap enough forhim to buy.

6.目的状语从句

目的状语从句常用的引导词有so that, in order that 等àin order to 简单句

Pleasesay it in a loud voice so that everyone can hear it.

He worksharder in order that he can go to a good college.

  1. 让步状语从句

引导词有though, although, even if, even though(尽管)等。

He oftenhelps others though although he is not rich.

They willstand by you even if you don’t succeed.

*Though, although与but 不能同时出现在一个句子中

8.比较状语从句

比较状语从句由than, as…as…, not asso… as等引导。(比较级)

He ismore outgoing than I.

He ran asfast as Mike.

二、练习

  1. It’squite common in Britain to say “thankyou”tothe drivers _____ people getoff the bus.

a.after b. since c. until d. when

  1. Theart club is for members only. You can’t go in ____you are a member.

a.unless b. because c. if d. though

  1. Nowmany parents send their children to foreign countries, _____ they want them toget a better education.

a.until b. though c. because

  1. ----What would some students like to do after finishing their education?

---- They would like to start towork_______ they needn’t depend on their parents completely.

a. assoon as b. so that c. before d. while

考点五 定语从句

修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。被定语从句修饰的词叫先行词,引导定语从句的词叫关系词(关系代词和关系副词)。

1.关系代词的基本用法

作主语

作宾语

作定语

指人

whothat

whowhomthat省略

whose

指物

whichthat

whichthat省略

whose

The man __________spokeat the meeting is from Hong Kong. (指人作主语)

Thebuilding ___________is being built will be used as a hospital.(指物作主语)

I visiteda scientist _______ name is known all over the world. (指人作定语)

  1. 关系代词特殊用法

(1)当关系代词在从句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词要与先行词保持一致。

He is oneof the boys who ______ (like) playing football.

He is theonly one of the boys who________ (like) playing football.

(2) 通常以下四种情况关系代词只能用that而不能用which.

1) 先行词为all, much, something, everything, nothing,little, none, the one 等不定代词时

2)先行词被形容词最高级修饰时。

3)当先行词被the only, the very, the just等修饰时。

4)先行词中既有人又有物时。

  1. 关系副词的基本用法。

1) when 在句中作状语,表示时间。

2) where 在句中作状语,表示地点。.

3) why 在句中作状语,表示原因。

Heremembers the day _______ he joined the League.

This isthe reason_______ he is late today.

This isthe place _______ Lu Xun was born.

练习

一、用括号内所给的动词的适当形式填空。

  1. Mrs.Wang said that she ______(buy) a new car the next day.

  2. OurEnglish teacher told us that Christmas ________(be) on December 25.

  3. I’lltell you as soon as Kate ______(come) here.

  4. Couldyou tell me when your father ______(go) to New York? When he ______(go) there,we’llsee him off.

  5. Homewith Kids is one of the TV sitcoms that _______(make) us laugh again and again.

二、单项选择

  1. Couldyou please keep the windows______? It’s so hot in the room.

a. open b. opens c. opened d. opening

  1. Workhard, _____ you’ll fall behind your classmates.

a. and b. but c. or d. so

  1. Benasked me ______ I had read the news in today’s newspaper.

a. that b. if c. what d. when

  1. ----Can you tell me _____?

---- Of course. He comes from Japan.

a. where does he come from b. where is he from

c. where he comes from d. where he wants to go

  1. Cathylikes comedies, _____ they’re very funny.

a. if b. so c. because d. until

  1. Hisbrother has been to Stone Forest twice_____ he came to Yunnan.

a. after b. before c. since d. for

  1. Theypiled the snow in one place ______ the children could make a snowman.

a. so that b. when c. because d. until

  1. ----Iwon’t go to the party tomorrow.

----_____ you told me you would. What’shappening?

a. But b. So c. And d. Or

  1. Mr.Brown knows little Japanese, ______ he can’t understand the instructions on thebottle of the pills.

a. so b. or c. but d. for

  1. Youwill be late ____ you hurry up.

a. after b. when c. unless d. if

  1. Somepeople like to play mahjong, ____ others don’t.

a. when b. while c. as d. since

  1. ____he is young, ____ he knows several languages.

a. Though, but b. Because, so c. Though, d. Because,

  1. Thisis the most interesting book____ I’ve read before.

a. that b. which c. who d. a&b

  1. Thisis the room in ____Chairman Mao lived.

a. that b. which c.who d. whom

15.August 1. 1927 was the day ____ the PLA was founded.

a. that b. which c. where d. when

  1. I like the place ____ I canhave a good time.

a. that b. which c. whered. when

三、写出下列句子的同义词,每空一词。

  1. The foreigners want to know howthey can learn Chinese kung fu well.

Theforeigners want to know ______ ______ learn Chinese kung fu well.

  1. When does the train leave? I want toknow.

I want to know ________the train _________

  1. “Do you want to try somethingnew?” Tom’s mother asked him.

Tom’ mother asked him_____________ _______ to try something new.

  1. You must be quick. If not, you’llmiss the early bus.

________ quick , ______ you willmiss the early bus.

  1. Jim’s mother let him watch TVafter he finished his homework.

Jim’s mother________ let him watchTV_______ he finished his homework.

  1. You shouldn’t tell him your address, Ithink.

I ________ think you ______ tell him youraddress.

  1. He ran so fast that we couldn’t catch upwith him.

He ran ____ fast ______ _____________ catch up with.

  1. This shirt was so cheap that becould buy it.

This shirt was _____ _______ ________ _______________ buy.

  1. He worked hard so that he couldmake more money.

He worked hard______ _______ ______ make moremoney.

  1. Because it snowed heavily, thetraffic had to stop.

The traffic had to stop ______ _______ the_______ snow.

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